Re-evaluating bribery and corruption

One of the most amusing things I’ve encountered is the idea that without giving a ‘bribe’, which is deemed as corrupt, nothing could be achieved in India. However, as a child watching the act of passing money or goods to another person who could facilitate or fulfil a desired request, I observed just how invaluable an asset that ‘gift’ was for the recipient, how gratefully received it was, how prayers were offered for the benefit of the benefactor.

Despite elders bemoaning the transaction as a bribe, the gift of money exchanged for a need fulfilled seemed to me a vital element in people’s lives: it covered kids’ schooling, family medical bills, a daughter’s dowry, in fact a host of everyday things.

Set this against the Wikipedia entry for bribery: an incredibly long list that, if we were to measure it against the everyday lives and activities of the European world, points a fat finger of bribery at the Western world – that somehow gets ignored in favour of tainting the older, more mature and civilised parts of the world with the stigma of bribery. If you give the transaction a formal title it becomes a legally and morally acceptable form of exchange between two parties; take the aura of legitimacy away by refusing to give the exchange a title, and hey presto, it is bribery and corruption.

Transactions in mature civilisations are as old as the human race and form part of a barter system, even though the exchange is not of goods – my lathe for your horse – but of money and fulfillment of a desired outcome. It is no less a barter just because the commodities involved have changed, because money is involved. In fact, the giving of a ‘gift’ to facilitate a desired or necessary outcome is an honoured tradition in all mature civilisations.

The western world has colluded to overlook the societal impact of this rite, its place in the pantheon of societal development, and to ignore the gratitude and humbleness that is mutually existing between both giver and recipient.; it discards too how this form of exchange symbolises both parties’ (predominantly the recipient of the ‘gift’) freedom from greed and accumulation and rank materialism.

To have a ‘gift’ refused is the height of insult, a judgement on your presumed moral and ethical inferiority. The rite persist today, but unfortunately is neither recognised nor accepted as an elevated form of bartering that makes both parties complicit in an attitude of mutual gratitude and communalism.

Part of the demise of the honourable aspects of the rite of ‘gift’ exchange must be laid at the door of the Indians as well as of European hegemonic value-making that criminalizes the Other and its values – for abusing the system, which is one of relationality as well as of expectation, beyond its capacity to sustain such a haemorrhage. By embedding the practice in greed accumulation, the foundations of a normal service transaction have been rent asunder.

If we are to reinvigorate the true relevance and importance of a transactional system whereby gifts are made of goods and/or money in exchange for fulfillment of a desired outcome, and stamp out the false taint of illegitimacy around mature civilisations and their practices, then we could do worse than asserting the origins of the transaction practice – save it from clutches of revisionist history-making; and, in the spirit of current parlance and values on entrepreneurship, denote each person as having simultaneously a salaried career and one as a service entrepreneur.

Wikipedia’s entry on bribery is not mired in fact, it is an attitude and a value-system posing as fact. The real fact is that transactional systems have existed for millennia and that within them money is one among many possible bartering goods, not merely – as it has become – a symbol of greed and corruption.

Advertisements

Sants, Svamis, Sufis

Everybody it seems is an expert on the boundaries that a leading Dharmic light must confine him- or herself to – but these opinionwalas and their conjectures aren’t ‘expert’ at all, they’re mostly emotion-led attitudes that acquire acceptance by sheer force of everyone else’s emotional musings on what Dharmic responsibility should look like. It is a little known fact that Dharmic hierarchy is very strict and punishes those who transgress or abuse the system.

Opinionwallahs wouldn’t for one minute judge the teachers, lecturers and professors who teach guide, mould and instruct our children. The social condemners know nothing of the sexual orientation, lifestyle, politics, marital status, or position in the education system of these educators. So, why attack the leading Dharmic light who provides succour and teaching to the average person – a person who manages life and its obstacles sufficiently well for themselves yet who seeks some additional comfort?

Why not leave seekers and their preferred Dharmic light alone – leave them to their isolated, self sustaining group communion, leave them to develop inner awakening at their own pace.

We are, after all, not talking of groups involved in mass intoxication or criminal activity.

Who among us has card-carrying authorisation to act as the Creator’s agent on earth? Not one of us. Yet up rises a mass emotional outcry, declaiming the hypnotic, cultish, subjugating hold that a mesmerising leading Dharmic light has over his or her group. The experience is never tested or studied; it is simply challenged, and blame apportioned to the shepherd. Yet the sheep are implicated in a contract of protection by the shepherd – and it is precisely this vital, valuable aspect underpinning the entire relationship that judgmental opinionwallahs fail to appreciate.

In education, each teacher is different from the next. Their commonality is their remit to impart information to their students for digestion, consideration and improvement. Dharmic leading lights play a similar role. Think back to your schooldays…you didn’t like or get on with all your teachers, but this did not stop them from being teachers, from fulfilling their remit as teachers.

Dharmic leading lights ought to be considered in the same vein. But, and the difference is significant here, whereas teachers learn and train to impart information and knowledge about specific subject-matters, Dharmic leading lights’ engagement is samskaric and dovetails with their previous births. Their disciples and followers are the schoolchildren of the classroom.

So the key learning here, and my suggestion, is that everybody ought to observe, study and learn before articulating disapproval – become the expert you seek to critique – and if a ‘student’ seeks your assistance then support them without attacking and vilifying their Dharmic leading light. Let the secular justice system take that individual to task if so needed. You should remain opinionless in the matter.

A Sikh does not judge or condemn based on emotion.

Khalsa negotiates a given problem without casting blame, while protecting the weak and the victim of injustice, doing so at personal cost to themselves if need be.

Khalsa’s path is protection of others through compassion for all.

A guide to concentration for Europeans

In the world of the Europeans the inability to concentrate at will is a cause for daily misgivings. The more so because it is a skill virtually innate to other races, especially those from south and south-east Asia.

On the face of it, the statement is basically true. But dig deeper and we find that the comparison is not on a like-for-like basis. Concentrating at will is not the constant in this equation, nor is it the ideal.

Let me explain: a wiring loom in a car comprises a copper wire in a plastic sheath. Yet the quality and flexibility of the copper and those of its plastic covering have a massive impact on the superiority of the electrical current passing through it for end use. In expensive cars, the loom is far better in quality than that found in cheaper cars.

The internal mechanism of humans, animals and plants etc., is similarly designed. Races differ in their physical ability also, and some of that is due to whether they want to follow a subjective or an objective lifestyle. Europeans are objective. Other races are subjective or a combination of the two to a varying degree. Therefore it is a fundamental and erroneous mistake to imagine that the internal wiring of humans is identical. It is not.

Thus, in the matter of concentration leading to contemplation, which in turn opens the portal to meditation and eventual samadhi, this cannot be performed by the European mechanism; while other races are placed in a hierarchy of success in achieving these outcomes.

For example, the elders from our background impressed upon Europeans the need for medical science to deal with the cause and not simply the symptoms of disease. The latter, masquerading medical science as an absolute and unassailable authority ignored this advice and show-cased the scientific revelation that was heart transplantation. Advice on matching donor and recipient characteristics, such as age, gender, social background, race, ethnicity, mental and emotional compatibilities were all heard and ignored.

Subsequently, the Europeans found that putting a woman’s heart into a truck driver’s body resulted in the recovered truck driver taking up knitting as a hobby. This is not a joke; the case is illustrated in medical journals. So it transpires that the elders, with their pre-ancient yet viable knowledge, do have considerable insight lacking among Europeans. The transplant case above may be an extreme example, but it nonetheless works to amplify the fact that a process as simple as that of concentration, contemplation, meditation and samadhi is differential and has to be tackled differently by different races.

The African and aboriginal races automatically surpass the Asians with respect to the quality of their meditation and samadhi. And the Asians will leave the Europeans well behind in the matter. But let’s remember what I stated earlier – we are not comparing like for like. Apples, pineapples, and oranges are all fruit, but that is where their similarity ends.

Or put another way: you can have an identical engine in a car, a boat and a plane but each will function differently, and not at all when they are put to work in each other’s environment.

So, in this post I will try to share what in my opinion is the most beneficial procedure in the concentration-contemplation-meditation-samadhi process for Europeans. A procedure that other races have transcended but from which even they might see better results.

A sequentially-focused mindscape like that of the Europeans is ineffective and analytically moribund if made to function in a random-focused mindscape. To the former, the chameleon-like changeability and adaptability of the latter is baffling and confusing. And in turn both these mindscapes are at a loss when confronted with the free-zone mindscape of African and aboriginal thought.

The most important point to remember is that each mindscape is interdependent – the optimum operational success of one’s native mindscape depends on precisely the optimum operational success of the other mindscapes. Weaken one and the others suffer exponentially.

A prime characteristic of the concentration-to-samadhi process is a sense of loss of time, energy, and effort…for zero results. This is the experience of all the races initially, who then embark on diverging paths according to the tenets of their differential mindscapes and experience wildly differing outcomes.

For the Europeans the outcome is that of accumulation of material wealth and of aspiration towards domination via subjugation of others. The Asiatic races encase themselves in advanced awakening at the cost of materialism. The African and aboriginal races surpass the awakening process and are immersed in the essence of creation and non-creation. Europeans want to subjugate. Asians want selfless, interwoven dignity for all. The African and aborigines seek harmony.

Which is not to say that in the case of Europeans, for example, their focus is wrong. They are of a different mindscape. Only a collective saturated desire to merge into another mindscape form will alter the way in which they undertake, manage and experience the concentration-samadhi process.

So, how can a European master concentration in their present mindscape?

Their first step must be to regain control of their eyes, to understand the deeper role of eyes, their vital importance in one’s ability to enter and then remain in concentration. Eyes are the most important factor in ones ability to enter and then remain in concentration. The European eye is vengeful, hateful and vandalistic; compassionless and glaring; dislocated from peace; with lack of eye contact symbolising a hidden and untrustworthy agenda. The advanced eye, by comparison, is restful.

And it is noteworthy that the eyes soak in more than 90% of negative influences, consequently affecting emotional and logical thought-processes and radically impairing harmonious decision-making. So, Europeans must train the eyes to remain steady and at peace.

Exercise1: Look at a point for more than thirty seconds, blinking as you normally would.

It is surprising how many cannot do this for thirty seconds let alone five minutes. Europeans, now in their third and fourth generation of television-viewing, have become programmed to sustain very low attention and concentration thresholds. And with low concentration levels comes the haemorrhaging of patience levels; to say nothing of the fact that seeping back into their consciousness is a spectrum of very bright fluctuating rays that slowly and unmistakably desensitize and erode the retina, without the body being able to counter the endless feed of this very powerful damaging, razor-sharp beam of unnatural light.

Eyes are designed to receive and emit light out of the body. When the function to emit body-light, almost like exhaling negative carbon dioxide from the body, is stopped then there appears an emotional scar that leads to mental unbalance and results in exaggerated aggressive behaviour.

One of the reasons that you must sleep only at night and in total darkness is to allow the eyes to exhale damaging light from the body during sleep. Though even the effectiveness of this is mitigated by vegetating in your favourite place on the sofa watching television year after year, because of precisely the physical retina damage I alluded to above.

An imbalance in the equilibrium of light intake and exhalation through the eyes, alongside the more physical damage, exponentially obstructs the achievement of positive results in Exercise 1 – impeding European advancement into an Asian-type meditative form. As does the aggressive European mindscape, of which creations such as the television are symptomatic, and represent the antithesis of concentration through which samadhi may eventually be experienced.

Let me make it clear that it is not for me or others to judge the European mindscape, any more than it is for them to judge the Asian, Africa and aboriginal mindscapes in turn. Attributes are given and can be changed only via collective conscious desire for change. What I can do, however, is proffer methods that may help in the endeavour towards inner awakening and knowledge among Europeans.

Let me expand on some of the basic reasons why the majority of people fail to harness the power needed to fulfil Exercise 1.

Body-light is an unknown energy in the West. The body automatically uses the sun or daylight to expedite its internal working mechanism. Light is a tremendous communicator as well as a pathway for communication. However, it is limited by the prescribed rules of physics – some of which, let us be clear, have not yet been quantified by western physicists. Sun-light, cosmic-light, body-light function on an unseen template, resembling a sensitive electronic circuit, but one characterized by an interwoven crisscross design within which the paths remain distinct.

Body-light follows these paths into the bio-system itself. The bio-system produces light-waste energy harmful to its existence and which must be expelled. This can only happen when the ambient external darkness is at a level allowing it to ‘suck’ body-light out of the bio-system. Thus, we are beginning to venture here into the fact that light has pressure. Unseen light has the least pressure, then cosmic-light, then darkness as we understand it, then sun-light. For light-waste to be expelled effectively, the bio-system needs to repose in a totally dark, well ventilated room.

If only things were as simple as that.

Body-light is also needed, amongst other things, to aid metabolism. If you have consumed an anti-meditation and difficultly-digested diet of meat then body-light, even the exhausted and harmful form awaiting expellation from the biosystem, is mobilized in the body’s effort to metabolise the consumed food.

By this process it transforms into poisonous waste material, such that when you eventually come to sleep in the imperative dark room, your meat consumption will hinder the necessary release of the body-light waste. Top your meat diet with alcohol and you are well on your way to a biosystem that functions in a negative zone as a rule. And the biosystem itself becomes negative.

Your body becomes a negative quality and you transmit this negativity to all around you – your children, for example, though you are adamant that you interact with them and wish for them nothing but love, caring and affection. Those words, those sentiments of affection, are cloaked in your biosystem poison. Scary, isn’t it?

Okay, so let’s say that in addition to a dark and well-ventilated sleeping space you must consume biosystem-friendly food. Assuming you follow this advice, what comes next?

I’ll share more in my next post….

The World of Advanced Awareness

Ordinary people create fairytale images, concepts and parameters regarding the perceived duty of those with advanced awareness. Where, according to them, the perimeter is shifting sand and changes as time progresses.

Those with Advanced Awareness, as a rule, steadfastly refuse to indulge in public relations activities. They are not interested in public opinion nor do they seek acclaim. They refuse to maximize their abilities for their own protection. They accept whatever is happening as the will of the creator. The creator of their world is genderless and beyond the senses. The highest beings, like Jesus of Nazareth, Mohamed of Makkah, Buddha of Budh Gaya, Raama of Ayodhya, Krishna of Dwarka, and indeed Guru NanakdevJi of Panjab, proceeded by placing their faith in the Maiea symmetry and entrusted themselves to her absolutely.

These Advanced Being maintained that be it a human three-dimensional life, or one of advanced dimensions, all enjoy as much pleasure as they do suffering. Suffering, maintained Buddhaji, was part and parcel of life; and in enunciating the atrocities of authority Guru Nankdevji and others among the Advanced Beings laid themselves bare to harsh inhumane suffering. They accepted their punishments. And were aware too of the pain and misery that would be the lot of the executives and foot soldiers who carried out this punishment.

Every human is at every moment faced with two choices: to participate in humane equality or to visit inhumane suffering upon another. Evil begets evil. Kindness begets kindness. And herein lies the first problem.

Ordinarywallahs feel kindness should be repaid in material benefit and gain. No, on the contrary, kindness actually creates an environment several steps removed from accumulation of material wealth. One’s involvement in mundane menial tasks allows greater scope and time to be focused on interactive meditation; while mentally challenging occupations offer only limited snatched moments in the day. The latter may have money in abundance but the mentally engaging requisites of their daily working lives leads to precious time being wasted on money-focused responsibilities, to the obstruction of their inner development. Conversely, the latter may be money-poor but rich in opportunities for inner development and meditation thereof.

So, the expectation that material wealth and fame should be the standard boon accruing to those involved in selfless service is the wrong one. It falsely equates material wealth with opportunity for growth, regards the former as integral to the latter. Yet, the very idea is counter-intuitive to the search for inner awareness. In fact, you have to merge into inner awareness for dormant natural abilities to become evident, visible, within reaching distance.

Yet, merging into the inner sphere of Advanced Awareness offers another trap: the illusion of self-importance. Although clothed in a desire to do good, what manifests is not the fulfillment of goodness but the glorification of yourself as the enabler, the instrument of that goodness, and ultimately the glorification of one’s self as God. Once trapped in the delusion of self-importance, shifting the focus from the good that ensues to your role in interceding for the good of others, you’ve had it. Like a game of snakes and ladders, the climb can be arduous and the fall from grace stupendously fast and without ceremony.

So what is the best method to handle the delusion of self-importance that emerges from the perception of doing good?

It is to leave do-gooding alone: leave the Maiea matrix to its own devices. You have to remember, you are nothing more than a cog in the scheme of things. When intercession is needed, you will be guided in this by those higher up the scale of advancement – they will issue you your duties, they will guide you towards interceding in an event if they deem the untackled-event to be a symptom of change contradictory to Maiea’s plans of the longue duree (that is to say, over the course of a millennium). The opportunities for self-delusion and grandeur along the way are, however, yours and yours alone.

In my case, I have been given a strong indication of the various components involved in the evolution of a future maximized for the benefit of all involved. You may sit back and watch in silence until such time as your intercession is needed, or you may deploy your duties and in doing so become a victim of the authorities to whom Maiea’s warning has been given through you. The atrocity of authority is not, then, simply something you remark upon and enunciate; it is not simply a ‘thing’ but (and as it was for the Advanced Beings of Jesus, Muhammed and Guru Nanakdevji) active and alive and an instrument of victimisation of those who speak its nature.

You, the interceder, will go through many lifetimes of horrible deaths at the hands of the authorities. Repeatedly you will be given the same scenario to play out. Each and every time, you will play your part knowing full well the outcome thereof, fearing the consequences for your family, yet refusing to seek mercy or compromise. You embrace the final play, the atrocity of the authorities that will harness your death, and the authorities for their part deliver it – and in doing so sign their own fate. Thus is the future delivered.

If those you are warning and exposing adopt cunning play, granting you the freedoms they are bent on destroying, your responsibility is to create an environment so unpalatable to them that the only recourse if your neutralization. Again, the future is delivered. Sure, Maiea’s axis can be restored by your effecting change in a piecemeal manner, but that’s seldom the case. Somebody’s ego will be piqued, and the game will resume at full throttle. The atrocities of the authorities will gather pace again, and your death will come – manifesting in as brutal a way possible, by your own choosing, since your brutal end augurs the same for the authorities’ own demise.

Guru Gobind Singhji, the tenth Sikh Guruji, proclaimed, following the appropriate rules of Maiea, how the Mohammedan (Islam) would henceforth fight amongst themselves until Islam evolved into a more user-friendly and tolerant faith. The Europeans, by virtue of their constant interference in this inner growth of Islam, are actively preventing this evolution and will come to embody precisely the internecine implosion that characterizes Islam today.

The Europeans refuse to listen. They feel they are masters of nature.

Arrogance like this brings its own end. Internecine European struggle along the various fault lines of Christianity will cause each side to heap unimaginable evil on the other, in future times. Or perhaps they will be able to choose to progress through their evolution with far less turmoil than currently characterises Islam.

Lord Krishna was finally and correctly accused of presiding over genocide. He defended himself by stating that to protect the flame of truth genocide was an agreeable price. Similarly, neither Jesus of Nazareth nor Mohamed of Makkah sought nor accepted dilution or their stances.

In the scheme of things, I am just a minor fieldworker charged with giving a message. And as such, I do not have an opinion about which path the various protagonists ought to choose. I am doing my samskaric job and they are doing theirs.

The reality I am trying to share is that this path into progressive personal realisation is fraught with personal grief and physical mutilation. The path of peace leading to calmness is, therefore, the very opposite of peace – though you remain internally peaceful what happens to you most categorically is not.

Gurmukhi vis-à-vis Panjabi (first written: 8th August 1988)

Over the years and in the course of my travels I have learned an enormous amount. One of the earliest tactics I cottoned onto during this time was to observe what the European museums and artefact collectors could tell me without sharing with them that which was obviously beyond their ken.

Why?

An example was shown to me of some of the earliest Gurmukhi characters inscribed on a plinth – they were presumed to be part of a now-defunct ancient language once in vogue in an area north-east of the Black Sea and north-west of the Caspian Sea. I enthusiastically pointed out the Gurmukhi to the group, who also had in their possession coins used as currency in north-western Europe in the area of the Low Countries and that depicted the historical figures of Sita and Raam. I of course was over the moon. Contacting the group sometime later, in order to show them to one other distinguished person, I was dismayed by the way they immediately closed ranks. The later official line was total refutation that the group ever had said items in their possession. And so I ‘wised up’ and came to understand that Europeans collectors hide away artefacts conclusively proving India’s cultural and linguistic dominance over the whole of Europe.

My personal research following this encounter later threw open just how mired in Sanskrit words are the north and west European languages still commonly used to today. And I know that more formal archaeological research will unearth evidence that India and Sanskrit-Indian masters dominated the European peninsular.

But everything is cyclical.

India once dominated. Then she retreated from her sphere of influence, drawn back to her roots in Aryadesh (the original name for India). The subsequent decay of Aryadesh became evident in first the depletion and then the non-existence of any recognisable and serious artistic literary medium among the nmasses. Sanskrit, that universal, which was later to be imitated by Latin during the penultimate decay of the Roman Empire, became the language of dictatorship, inculcating far-reaching social divisions, not merely of labour and language but of legitimacy and power and identity. The selfish overlords became despotic and the masses as usual paid the price.

The dialects of Panjabi constituted the language of spoken communication, while Sanskrit maintained an iron-grip as the official language of governance and dharmic observation. (Please do not confuse dharma to mean religion. In the same way you should not confuse Soul with Atman.) Thus, Panjabi had neither social nor literary status.

With the Turkish invasion of c.12th century came Persian’s replacement of Sanskrit as the language of government administration, the failure of Arabic to command such dominance stemming from the high prejudice and low esteem in which it was held compared with Persian. Thus, Sanskrit underwent a further evolution – from a global language to one symbolising internal Aryadesh power and authority, to a language confined to the refined pursuits of literary, philosophical and dharmic expression.

In the early 1800s the English missionary, William Carey, initiated a language program emulated throughout the administrative sectors of the East India Company. It aimed at teaching the colonisers the language of the people they ruled, for the purpose of more effectively administering colonial rule. The result was a codification of complex native linguistics, shoehorning them into the grammatical limitations of English. For their part, the Indian masses, excluded from learning Sanskrit, took to enthusiastically studying English. Theirs was a keenness to understand the outside world, to expand their knowledge base; and it stood in stark contrast with the disinterested English colonial who displayed no faculty for learning new languages. Soaking up English literature, history and rules of language composition the Indian assistant translators mired themselves in a construct far less complex than Sanskrit; and in turn they came through their acquisition of the English language to depose Panjabi as the language of communication, most prominently in the matter of prose-writing.

Sanskrit’s own evolution as the language of the reified, disconnecting it from the language of political power, was formalised in Macaulay’s 1835 injunction that English be adopted as the language of government. And by 1844 English language knowledge was an imperative qualification for those Indians wishing to join the Civil Service; thus, reinforcing the value-meaning of English as the language of literature and power. Local languages naturally suffered, though it must be said that parts of the Indian gentry refused to be complicit in this mass linguistic migration, encouraging local language use, extolling the superiority of the Sanskrit-language classics… but all the while inexorably drawn towards the English-language classics.

In the clash of the titans, Sanskrit and English, had the bracketing of the former as the language of refinement and privilege and power not occurred, entailing exclusion of the mass of Indians from learning and using a language that had once enjoyed global power, then English would never have secured a foothold in India. In the meeting of two wrongs only a wrong will win.

Here then was a multiplicity governed in various streams of its official, unofficial, ritual and everyday life by a hierarchical structure of languages. Local languages have been among the worst-suffering in this hierarachy – with Sanskrit marginalized, the appetite for complex grammatical syntax was lost; English-learning had bequeathed a laziness, an attitude of ambivalence towards the cosmopolitanism conjunctural with being a multiplicity such as India was and is; and variation consequently became something to be frowned upon, cast into the wilderness. Simultaneously, the rising fortunes of English in India heralded a panacea for the social and political exclusion experienced by the lower orders, a level playing-field on which to improve their standing.

The saddest joke is that in lionizing and valourising English, we may forget that that greatest of English writers – Shakespeare – has been proven by the University of Cambridge studies in 1890s and early 1900s to be the most shameless plagiariser. Names, settings, even entire works appear in Shakespeare having been lifted directed from Arabian stories.

Returning to my opening salvo about Panjabi and her Gurmukhi characters, these are reinvocations by Guru Angaddevji (following instructions laid down for him by Guru Nanakdevji) of an ancient script. So it was quite natural that I was so enthused and excited by the finds described in the opening paragraphs of this post!

Gurmukhi, the ancient language stretching from north-east of the Black Sea to north-west of the Caspian Sea, has 52 distinct sounds; and we can see today how the multitude of European languages use diacritical marks to enlargen their own sound base (in English there are 26 distinct sounds) in approximation of the more numerous Gurmukhi characters. I’ve carried out my research on this topic, and many years ago. It remains for the current crop of linguists to draw out these linkages, to present the array of Gurmukhi in European format with existing and newer diacritical marks that fully and finally captures its breadth and scale and sheer beauty.